Because of historical reason, Song Dynasty of China was divided into Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127) and Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279).
Tombs of Northern Song Dynasty Emperors
Tombs of Northern Song Dynasty emperors are located in the southwest of Gongyi City of Henan Province of China; about 122 kilometers distance from Kaifeng, the capital of Northern Song Dynasty. Here buried 7 emperors of Northern Song Dynasty altogether. Including empress tombs, prince tombs, princess and minister tombs, there are more than 200 tombs in all. Huge tombs groups are just like open-air museum.
The scale of each emperor’s tomb is basically the same. Planted pines in the whole tombs groups. Pine symbolizes longevity in Chinese culture. Each tomb district is made up of Overground Palace and Underground Palace, empress tomb, prince tombs, princess and minister tombs. Built more than ten meters high Divine Wall around Overground Palace and Underground Palace. There are Divine Doors on the four sides. There is a pair of stone lions outside each Divine Door. The stone lion is holy animal in Chinese culture, it can resist evil things.
There are Magpie Platform (Quetai), Divine Way (path leading to the tomb) and Mausoleum Platform from south to north. Both sides of the Divine Way are symmetrical stone statue. There are elephants, Auspicious Birds, horses, sheep, tigers, stelae, imperial tomb officers and generals…
It is known as the Underground Palace under the Mausoleum Platform. Here is the place to bury emperor’s corpse. The scale of Underground Palace is very grand; the depth generally can reach 30 meters. Imitating the building structure of ground palace, Underground Palace is built by the Blue Brick. There are large-scale colored mural paintings on the wall of Underground Palace.
However, In order to rob Song Dynasty wealth, Yuan Dynasty dug the tombs of Northern Song Dynasty emperors after Northern Song Dynasty extinction. Cause the mausoleums to be destroyed.
Tombs of Southern Song Dynasty Emperors
The Southern Song Dynasty was set up in the south of China after Northern Song Dynasty extinction. Emperors of Southern Song Dynasty were fatuous and incapability; and the government of Southern Song Dynasty was corruption. Six emperors of Southern Song Dynasty were buried in Shaoxing. The Southern Song Dynasty’s tombs buildings form was the same as Northern Song Dynasty, but its scale was inferior to Northern Song Dynasty. Very much unfortunate, all treasures of tombs of Southern Song Dynasty emperors were robbed by the soldiers of Yuan Dynasty. Here is a heap of rubble now.
The history has already become past, but we should not forget. The mankind needs peace forever!